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information is physical

from Wikipedia’s entry on Physical information:

Due to this connection with algorithmic information theory, entropy can be said to be that portion of a system’s information capacity which is “used up,” that is, unavailable for storing new information (even if the existing information content were to be compressed). The rest of a system’s information capacity (aside from its entropy) might be called extropy, and it represents the part of the system’s information capacity which is potentially still available for storing newly derived information. The fact that physical entropy is basically “used-up storage capacity” is a direct concern in the engineering of computing systems; e.g., a computer must first remove the entropy from a given physical subsystem (eventually expelling it to the environment, and emitting heat) in order for that subsystem to be used to store some newly computed information.

from the abstract for Rolf Landauer’s The physical nature of information:

Information is inevitably tied to a physical representation and therefore to restrictions and possibilities related to the laws of physics and the parts available in the universe. Quantum mechanical superpositions of information bearing states can be used, and the real utility of that needs to be understood. Quantum parallelism in computation is one possibility and will be assessed pessimistically. The energy dissipation requirements of computation, of measurement and of the communications link are discussed. The insights gained from the analysis of computation has caused a reappraisal of the perceived wisdom in the other two fields. A concluding section speculates about the nature of the laws of physics, which are algorithms for the handling of information, and must be executable in our real physical universe.

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